In Creole studies, the European-centric focus on contact languages that rose in the historical context of European colonization, above all in the Caribbean, is still widespread but attempts are now being made to widen the perspective. The recently published Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures APiCS, Michaelis, Maurer, Haspelmath, Huber focuses on a majority of European-lexified contact languages 57 languages but what is new is the inclusion of several less-studied non-Indo-European based pidgin and creole languages 7 African, 7 Asian and 1 Australian.
In French, the language is normally called basque, though in recent times euskara has become common. Spanish has a greater variety of names for the language.
Today, it is most commonly referred to as el vasco, la lengua vasca, or el euskera. History of the Basque language Basque is geographically surrounded by Romance languages but is a language isolate unrelated to them, and indeed, to any other language in the world.
It is the last remaining descendant of one of the pre-Indo-European languages of Western Europe, the others being extinct outright.
Little is known of its origins, but an early form of the Basque language likely was present in Western Europe before the arrival of the Indo-European languages to the area. Authors such as Miguel de Unamuno and Louis Lucien Bonaparte have noted that the words for "knife" aizto"axe" aizkoraand "hoe" aitzur derive from the word for "stone" haitzand have therefore concluded that the language dates to prehistoric Europe when those tools were made of stone.
Latin inscriptions in Gallia Aquitania preserve a number of words with cognates in the reconstructed proto-Basque languagefor instance, the personal names Nescato and Cison neskato and gizon mean "young girl" and "man", respectively in modern Basque.
This language is generally referred to as Aquitanian and is assumed to have been spoken in the area before the Roman Republic 's conquests in the western Pyrenees. Some authors even argue for late Basquisationthat the language moved westward during Late Antiquity after the fall of the Western Roman Empire into the northern part of Hispania into what is now Basque Country.
Through the long contact with Romance languages, Basque adopted a sizable number of Romance words. Initially the source was Latin, later Gascon a branch of Occitan in the northeast, Navarro-Aragonese in the southeast and Spanish in the southwest.
Hypotheses concerning Basque's connections to other languages[ edit ] The statistical improbability and chronological difficulty of linking Basque with its Indo-European neighbors in Europe has inspired many scholars to search for its possible relatives elsewhere.
Besides many pseudoscientific comparisonsthe appearance of long-range linguistics gave rise to several attempts to connect Basque with geographically very distant language families. Almost all hypotheses concerning the origin of Basque are controversial, and the suggested evidence is not generally accepted by most linguists.
Some of these hypothetical connections are: However, not enough evidence exists to distinguish geographical connections from linguistic ones.
Iberian itself remains unclassified. Koch in his review of Forni's paper outlining why an Indo-European classification of Basque cannot be accepted, even if some of Forni's data is accepted.
This proposal, made by the German linguist Theo Vennemannclaims that enough toponymical evidence exists to conclude that Basque is the only survivor of a larger family that once extended throughout most of Western Europe, and has also left its mark in modern Indo-European languages spoken in Europe.
This hypothesis proposed in the 19th century by d'Arbois de Jubainville, J. Kretschmer and several other linguists encompasses the Basco-Iberian hypothesis. Linking Basque to the Kartvelian languages is now widely discredited. The hypothesis was inspired by the existence of the ancient Kingdom of Iberia in the Caucasus and further by some typological similarities between the two languages.
Mallorythe hypothesis was also inspired by a Basque place-name ending in -dze which is common in Kartvelian. Northeast Caucasiansuch as Chechenare seen by some linguists as more likely candidates for a very distant connection.
This claim has been harshly contested by Xabier Kintana of the Euskaltzaindiawho says that this theory makes no sense and consists of "cheap speculation", and criticises the lack of methodology.
Nothing is known about the limits of this region in ancient times, but on the basis of toponyms and epigraphs, it seems that in the beginning of the Common Era it stretched to the river Garonne in the north including the southwestern part of present-day France ; at least to the Val d'Aran in the east now a Gascon -speaking part of Cataloniaincluding lands on both sides of the Pyrenees ;  the southern and western boundaries are not clear at all.
The Reconquista temporarily counteracted this contracting tendency when the Christian lords called on Northern Iberian peoples—Basques, Asturiansand " Franks "—to colonise the new conquests.
The Basque language became the main everyday language,[ where? In the 20th century, however, the rise of Basque nationalism spurred increased interest in the language as a sign of ethnic identity, and with the establishment of autonomous governments in the Southern Basque Countryit has recently made a modest comeback.
In the Spanish part, Basque-language schools for children and Basque-teaching centres for adults have brought the language to areas such as Enkarterri and the Ribera d'Ebre in Navarre, where it is not known if it has ever been spoken before; and in the French Basque Country, these schools and centres have almost stopped the decline of the language.
Official status[ edit ] Official status of the Basque language in Navarre Historically, Latin or Romance languages have been the official languages in this region. However, Basque was explicitly recognised in some areas.
For instance, the fuero or charter of the Basque-colonised Ojacastro now in La Rioja allowed the inhabitants to use Basque in legal processes in the 13th and 14th centuries.
The Spanish Constitution of states in Article 3 that the Spanish language is the official language of the nation, but allows autonomous communities to provide a co-official language status for the other languages of Spain.
The Statute of Navarre establishes Spanish as the official language of Navarre, but grants co-official status to the Basque language in the Basque-speaking areas of northern Navarre.
Basque has no official status in the French Basque Country and French citizens are barred from officially using Basque in a French court of law.
However, the use of Basque by Spanish nationals in French courts is permitted with translationas Basque is officially recognised on the other side of the border. The positions of the various existing governments differ with regard to the promotion of Basque in areas where Basque is commonly spoken.
The language has official status in those territories that are within the Basque Autonomous Community, where it is spoken and promoted heavily, but only partially in Navarre.
The Ley del Vascuence "Law of Basque"seen as contentious by many Basques, but considered fitting Navarra's linguistic and cultural diversity by some of the main political parties of Navarre,  divides Navarre into three language areas:A Report on Pidgins and Creoles, Varieties of a European Language and Several Non-European Languages.
1, words. 5 pages. The Role of Speaking in Language Learning. 2, words. 6 pages. An Observation of the Phonology, Semantics, and Differences in Communication of .
Basque is geographically surrounded by Romance languages but is a language isolate unrelated to them, and indeed, to any other language in the world. It is the last remaining descendant of one of the pre-Indo-European languages of Western Europe, the others being extinct outright.
Consequently, its prehistory may not be reconstructible by means of the traditional comparative method except by. The contact between different peoples and languages, especially as a result of the European discoveries, also gave origin to the many pidgins, creoles and mixed languages that are mainly based in Indo-European languages (many of which are spoken in island groups and coastal regions).
Strictly speaking, creoles and pidgins are new language varieties that developed out of contacts between colonial nonstandard varieties of a European language and several non–European lan- guages around the Atlantic and in the Indian and Pacific Oceans during the 17th–19th centuries.
What types of morphology do pidgins and creoles prefer? Agglutinating and Isolating. Takes place at post-creole stage - Language loses pidgin features and becomes more like the orgional target language - Creoles are the outcome of black slaves failure to learn target European languages.
This is a list of pidgins, creoles, mixed languages and cants that are based or partially based on Indo-European languages Pidgins spoken more widely in the state of Amapá, is a variety of the former, possibly the same language. Indian Ocean Varieties with progressive aspect marker ape – subsumed under a common classification as.