History of feminism The ancient world There is scant evidence of early organized protest against such circumscribed status.
The first dichotomous division of this mass [mankind] is said to have been on the grounds of sex: They further assert that men as a class benefit from the oppression of women.
Patriarchal theory is not generally defined as a belief that all men always benefit from the oppression of all women. Rather, it maintains that the primary element of patriarchy is a relationship of dominance, where one party is dominant and exploits the other for the benefit of the former.
Radical feminists believe that men as a class use social systems and other methods of control to keep women and non-dominant men suppressed. Radical feminists seek to abolish patriarchy by challenging existing social norms and institutions, and believe that eliminating patriarchy will liberate everyone from an unjust society.
Ti-Grace Atkinson maintained that the need for power fuels the male class to continue oppressing the female class, arguing that "the need men have for the role of oppressor is the source and foundation of all human oppression".
Redstockings co-founder Ellen Willis wrote in that radical feminists "got sexual politics recognized as a public issue", created second-wave feminism 's vocabulary, helped to legalize abortion in the USA, "were the first to demand total equality in the so-called private sphere" "housework and child care It grew largely due to the influence of the civil rights movementthat had gained momentum in the s, and many of the women who took up the cause of radical feminism had previous experience with radical protest in the struggle against racism.
Chronologically, it can be seen within the context of second wave feminism that started in the early s. In our group at least, they opposed so-called male dominated national liberation struggles".
They took up the cause and advocated for a variety of women's issues, including abortionthe Equal Rights Amendmentaccess to credit, and equal pay. Later, second-wave radical feminism saw greater numbers of black feminists and other women of color participating.
In the s, radical feminism emerged simultaneously within liberal feminist and working-class feminist discussions, first in the United States, then in the United Kingdom and Australia. Those involved had gradually come to believe that it was not only the middle-class nuclear family that oppressed women, but that it was also social movements and organizations that claimed to stand for human liberation, notably the counterculturethe New Leftand Marxist political parties, all of which were male-dominated and male-oriented.
Radical feminists introduced the use of consciousness raising CR groups.
These groups brought together intellectuals, workers, and middle class women in developed Western countries to discuss their experiences. During these discussions, women noted a shared and repressive system regardless of their political affiliation or social class.
Consciousness raising was extensively used in chapter sub-units of the National Organization for Women NOW during the s.
Radical feminism claimed that a totalizing ideology and social formation — patriarchy government or rule by fathers — dominated women in the interests of men. This call to women's activism was coined by Kathie Sarachild in the s. The feminist side of the split, which soon began referring to itself as "radical feminists",  soon constituted the basis of a new organization, Redstockings.
Ideology emerges and diverges[ edit ] At the beginning of this period, " heterosexuality was more or less an unchallenged assumption".
Among radical feminists, the view became widely held that, thus far, the sexual freedoms gained in the sexual revolution of the s, in particular, the decreasing emphasis on monogamyhad been largely gained by men at women's expense.
Most members of Redstockings held to a materialist and anti- psychologistic view. They viewed men's oppression of women as ongoing and deliberate, holding individual men responsible for this oppression, viewing institutions and systems including the family as mere vehicles of conscious male intent, and rejecting psychologistic explanations of female submissiveness as blaming women for collaboration in their own oppression.
They held to a view—which Willis would later describe as "neo- Maoist "—that it would be possible to unite all or virtually all women, as a class, to confront this oppression by personally confronting men. They placed more emphasis on institutions, seeing marriage, family, prostitution, and heterosexuality as all existing to perpetuate the "sex-role system".
They saw all of these as institutions to be destroyed.Feminism, the belief in the social, economic, and political equality of the sexes. Although largely originating in the West, feminism is manifested worldwide and is represented by various institutions committed to activity on behalf of women’s rights and interests.
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