Context[ edit ] Following the American Revolutionary Warthe institution of slavery and those bound within it grew, as slaves were naturally increasing; their total number reached four million slaves by the midth century. Beginning injust after the American Revolution, a British organization, the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poorlaunched its efforts to establish the Sierra Leone Province of Freedom for London 's "black poor". Some slave owners decided to support emigration following an abortive slave rebellion headed by Gabriel Prosser inand a rapid increase in the number of free African Americans in the United States in the first two decades after the Revolutionary War, which they perceived as threatening. Although the ratio of whites to blacks was 4:
Norse colonization of the Americas Voyages of the Vikings to America. Norse journeys to Greenland and Canada are supported by historical and archaeological evidence.
Christopher ColumbusJohn CabotAmerigo Vespucci and Giovanni da Verrazzano Early explorations and conquests were made by the Spanish and the Portuguese immediately following their own final reconquest of Iberia in In the Treaty of Tordesillasratified by the Pope, these two kingdoms divided the entire non-European world into two areas of exploration and colonization, with a north to south boundary that cut through the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern part of present-day Brazil.
As a result, by the midth century, the Spanish Crown had gained control of much of western South America, and southern North Americain addition to its earlier Caribbean territories. Other European Colonization in early america soon disputed the terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas. England and France attempted to plant colonies in the Americas in the 16th century, but these failed.
England and France succeeded in establishing permanent colonies in the following century, along with the Dutch Republic. Some of these were on Caribbean islands, which had often already been conquered by the Spanish or depopulated by disease, while others were in eastern North America, which had not been colonized by Spain north of Florida.
In the 18th century, Denmark—Norway revived its former colonies in Greenlandwhile the Russian Empire gained a foothold in Alaska. Denmark-Norway would later make several claims in the Caribbean, starting in the s.
As more nations gained an interest in the colonization of the Americas, competition for territory became increasingly fierce. Colonists often faced the threat of attacks from neighboring colonies, as well as from indigenous tribes and pirates.
Early state-sponsored colonists[ edit ] Further information: Portugal in the Age of DiscoverySpanish colonization of the Americasand First European colonization wave 15th century—19th century The first phase of well-financed European activity in the Americas began with the Atlantic Ocean crossings of Christopher Columbus —sponsored by Spain, whose original attempt was to find a new route to India and China, known as " the Indies ".
He was followed by other explorers such as John Cabotwho was sponsored by England and reached Newfoundland. Amerigo Vespucciworking for Portugal in voyages from toestablished that Columbus had reached a new set of continents.
Cartographers still use a Latinized version of his first name, America, for the two continents. In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown.
Iberian Union These explorations were followed, notably in the case of Spain, by a phase of conquest: The Spaniards, having just finished the Reconquista of Spain from Muslim rule, were the first to colonize the Americas, applying the same model of governing their European holdings to their territories of the New World.
As in the Iberian Peninsulathe inhabitants of Hispaniola were given new landmasters, while religious orders handled the local administration.
Progressively the encomienda system, which granted tribute access to indigenous labor and taxation to European settlers, was set in place.
A relatively common misconception is that a small number of conquistadores conquered vast territories, aided only by disease epidemics and their powerful caballeros. In fact, recent archaeological excavations have suggested a vast Spanish-Indian alliance numbering in the hundreds of thousands.
Two years later, Charles V signed the New Laws which replaced the Laws of Burgos of prohibiting slavery and the repartimientosbut also claiming as his own all the American lands and all of the indigenous people as his own subjects.
Painting depicting a Castas with his mixed-race daughter and his Mulatta wife by Miguel CabreraWhen Pope Alexander VI issued the Inter caetera bull in May granting the new lands to the Kingdom of Spainhe requested in exchange an evangelization of the people.
Thus, during Columbus 's second voyage, Benedictine friars accompanied him, along with twelve other priests. As slavery was prohibited between Christians, and could only be imposed in non-Christian prisoners of war or on men already sold as slaves, the debate on Christianization was particularly acute during the 16th century.
Inthe papal bull Sublimis Deus definitively recognized that Native Americans possessed souls, thus prohibiting their enslavement, without putting an end to the debate. Some claimed that a native who had rebelled and then been captured could be enslaved nonetheless. The process of Christianization was at first violent: To reward their troops, the Conquistadores often allotted Indian towns to their troops and officers.
Black African slaves were introduced to substitute for Native American labor in some locations—including the West Indieswhere the indigenous population was nearing extinction on many islands.
During this time, the Portuguese gradually switched from an initial plan of establishing trading posts to extensive colonization of what is now Brazil.
They imported millions of slaves to run their plantations. By the late 16th century American silver accounted for one-fifth of Spain's total budget. They were sponsored by common stock companies such as the chartered Virginia Company financed by wealthy Englishmen who exaggerated the economic potential of this new land.
The main purpose of this colony was the hope of finding gold. The lack of food security leading to extremely high mortality rate was quite distressing and cause for despair among the colonists.
To support the Colony, numerous supply missions were organized. Tobacco later became a cash crop, with the work of John Rolfe and others, for export and the sustaining economic driver of Virginia and the neighboring colony of Maryland.
From the beginning of Virginia's settlements in until the s, the main source of labor and a large portion of the immigrants were indentured servants looking for new life in the overseas colonies. During the 17th century, indentured servants constituted three-quarters of all European immigrants to the Chesapeake region.
Most of the indentured servants were teenagers from England with poor economic prospects at home.FREE Downloads of Colonization Game and Manual; Russian Colonization Site by Grinkod of Saint Petersburg (Russian: Satan-Putinburg).
Download Colonization . Some computer games are highly addictive, and Sid Meier's Colonization is definitely one of them. This well-balanced, challenging and informative strategy game based on early european colonization has earned its place in history.
European colonial life in America existed just shy of years before the United States of America emerged as an independent nation. The New World is Settled. *The Colonial Period in America took place between the early s and late s. *The colonists established 13 heartoftexashop.com colonies are presently known as: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Virginia.
Sam White’s aptly named A Cold Welcome is a remarkable journey through the complex impacts of the Little Ice Age on Colonial North America. His compelling narrative takes the study of early America in a new, and potentially highly important, direction that delves into a . From Jamestown until the early stirrings of the American Revolution, colonial America became the foundation of the United States.