As much pleasure a publication may bring to a scientist, the process of scientific writing and publication may seem an uphill task to a budding researcher. Anyone new to the research field may wonder what a research paper really looks like. My aim in writing this article is to introduce students to the world of scientific research article writing. Getting into the details of this field is beyond the scope of this article, but I would like to highlight the basic structure of a scientific paper.
Citation Information When you write about scientific topics to specialists in a particular scientific field, we call that scientific writing. When you write to non-specialists about scientific topics, we call that science writing.
The scientific paper has developed over the past three centuries into a tool to communicate the results of scientific inquiry. The main audience for scientific papers is extremely specialized.
The purpose of these papers is twofold: A standard format with six main part helps readers to find expected information and analysis: Title--subject and what aspect of the subject was studied.
The main reason for the study, the primary results, the main conclusions Introduction--why the study was undertaken Methods and Materials--how the study was undertaken Results--what was found Discussion--why these results could be significant what the reasons might be for the patterns found or not found There are easy writing scientific paper ways to approach the writing of a scientific paper, and no one way is right.
Many people, however, find that drafting chunks in this order works best: Title The title should be very limited and specific. Really, it should be a pithy summary of the article's main focus. Generally between words, it should state the goals, results, and the main conclusions of your study.
You should list the parameters of your study when and where was it conducted, if applicable; your sample size; the specific species, proteins, genes, etc.
Think of the process of writing the abstract as taking one or two sentences from each of your sections an introductory sentence, a sentence stating the specific question addressed, a sentence listing your main techniques or procedures, two or three sentences describing your results, and one sentence describing your main conclusion.
Example One Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia are risk factors for life-threatening complications such as end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease and stroke.
Why some patients develop complications is unclear, but only susceptibility genes may be involved. To test this notion, we studied crosses involving the fawn-hooded rat, an animal model of hypertension that develops chronic renal failure.
Here, we report the localization of two genes, Rf-1 and Rf-2, responsible for about half of the genetic variation in key indices of renal impairment. Rf-1 strongly affects the risk of renal impairment, but has no significant effect on blood pressure.
Our results show that susceptibility to a complication of hypertension is under at least partially independent genetic control from susceptibility to hypertension itself. Brown, Donna M, A. Example Two We studied survival of calves of radiocollared moose Alces alces from parturition to the end of July in southcentral Alaska from to Prior studies established that predation by brown bears Ursus arctos was the primary cause of mortality of moose calves in the region.
Our objectives were to characterize vulnerability of moose calves to predation as influenced by age, date, snow depths, and previous reproductive success of the mother.
We also tested the hypothesis that survival of twin moose calves was independent and identical to that of single calves.
Survival of moose calves from parturition through July was 0. Mean annual survival was 0. Previous winter's snow depths or survival of the mother's previous calf was not related to neonatal survival. Selection for early parturition was evidenced in the 4 years of study by a 6.
Although there was no significant difference in survival of twin and single moose calves, most twins that died disappeared together during the first 15 days after birth and independently thereafter, suggesting that predators usually killed both when encountered up to that age.
Alaska, Alces alces, calf survival, moose, Nelchina, parturition synchrony, predation Testa, J. Example Three We monitored breeding phenology and population levels of Rana yavapaiensis by use of repeated egg mass censuses and visual encounter surveys at Agua Caliente Canyon near Tucson, Arizona, from to Adult counts fluctuated erratically within each year of the study but annual means remained similar.
Juvenile counts peaked during the fall recruitment season and fell to near zero by early spring. Rana yavapaiensis deposited eggs in two distinct annual episodes, one in spring March-May and a much smaller one in fall September-October.
Larvae from the spring deposition period completed metamorphosis in earlv summer. Over the two years of study, Egg masses were deposited during periods of predictable, moderate stream flow, but not during seasonal periods when flash flooding or drought were likely to affect eggs or larvae.
Breeding phenology of Rana yavapaiensis is particularly well suited for life in desert streams with natural flow regimes which include frequent flash flooding and drought at predictable times.
The exotic predators of R. Unaltered stream flow regimes that allow natural fluctuations in stream discharge may provide refugia for this declining ranid frog from exotic predators by excluding those exotic species that are unable to cope with brief flash flooding and habitat drying. Introduction The introduction is where you sketch out the background of your study, including why you have investigated the question that you have and how it relates to earlier research that has been done in the field.Writing the Scientific Paper.
W hen you write about scientific topics to specialists in a particular scientific field, we call that scientific writing. (When you write to non-specialists about scientific topics, we call that science writing.) T he scientific paper has developed over the past three centuries into a tool to communicate the results of scientific inquiry.
Here's the abstract for a paper (that I haven't written) on how to write an abstract: How to Write an Abstract The first sentence of an abstract should clearly introduce the topic of the paper so that readers can relate it to other work they are familiar with.
How to write a scientific abstract in six easy steps. January · How to Write a Scientific Paper. Publication Date: 14 Mar First of all, think of your audience because it determines the best methods and style of writing. Consider the scientific background of your readers. Think how you can make your paper easier to read.
Another important feature of scientific papers is the field you are writing about. Sep 08, · How to Write a Scientific Paper. In this Article: Formatting the Paper Writing the Sections Making the Figures and Tables Citing Your Sources Properly Sample Paper Community Q&A Even if you are not planning to publish a scientific paper, you may be asked to write in this format for a college course or other program%(57).
The scientific writing process can be a daunting and often procrastinated “last step” in the scientific process, leading to cursory attempts to get scientific arguments and results down on paper. However, scientific writing is not an afterthought and should begin well before drafting the first outline.
The book covers all aspects of scientific writing from submission to publishing in detail Written and edited by world leaders in the field Chapters are easy to understand with essential contents for writing quality scientific research paper and easy to follow algorithms and key points in each.