He rarely left his hometown of Copenhagen, and travelled abroad only five times—four times to Berlin and once to Sweden. His prime recreational activities were attending the theatre, walking the streets of Copenhagen to chat with ordinary people, and taking brief carriage jaunts into the surrounding countryside. His teachers at the university included F.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message Is despair a merit or a defect?
Purely dialectically it is both. If one were to think of despair only in the abstract, without reference to some particular despairer, one would have to say it is an enormous merit.
The finite limitations such as those imposed by one's body or one's concrete circumstances and the infinite those capacities that free us from limitations such as imagination always exist in a state of tension. That tension between two aspects of the "self" that must be brought into balance.
When the self is out of balance, i. Notably, Anti-Climacus says one can be in despair even if one feels perfectly happy. Despair is not just an emotion, in a deeper sense it is the loss of self, i.
The A is an aesthete well aware that he can use the power of interpretation to define who he is and what he takes to be valuable. He knows he can shape and reshape his own self-identity.
Nothing binds him to his relationships. Nothing binds him to his past actions. In the end though, he also knows he lacks a consistent understanding of who he is. He lacks a self that resists his own power of reinterpretation. His older friend Judge William, argues that a deeper concept of selfhood is discovered as one commits to one's actions, and takes ownership of the past and present.
A concept of oneself, as this particular human being, begins to take form in one's own consciousness. Another perspective, one in which an individual can find some measure of freedom from despair, is available for the person with religious "faith.
In Fear and TremblingJohannes de Silentio argues that the choice of Abraham to obey the private, unethical, commandment of God to sacrifice his son reveals what faith entails: His God requires more than being good, he demands that he seek out an inner commitment to him.
If Abraham were to blithely obey, his actions would have no meaning. It is only when he acts with fear and trembling that he demonstrates a full awareness that murdering a son is absolutely wrong, ethically speaking. Despair has several specific levels that a person can find themselves, each one further in despair than the last as laid out in The Sickness Unto Death.
The first level is "The despair that is ignorant of being despair or the despairing ignorance of having a self and an eternal self. In this sense, the person does not recognize his own despair because he often measures the success of his life based on whether he himself judges himself to be happy.
Regardless of whether you know you are in despair or not, Kierkegaard asserts, you can still be in that state. He notes that this is the most common in the world. The next level of despair is "The despair that is conscious of being despair and therefore is conscious of having a self in which there is something eternal and then either in despair does not will to be itself or in despair wills to be itself.
These three divisions are mostly the self-worth the person has and the amount to which they understand their own despair. The despair to not be oneself is pretty straightforward.
A person sees themself as unworthy and as such does not see themself as worthy before something they do not understand. The despair not to be a self is deeper, because to not wish to be a self is to wish to not have a relation to God or at the very least see one's relation to God as unworthy, and thus shrink from it.
The lowest form of this group, however, is the desire to be a new self. This is logically the deepest form as it assumes the deepest understanding of one's despair.
Once in despair, without a complete relation to God one will always be in despair, so to be in this level one understands the permanence of the despair. The despair in this group arises from the nature of sensate things and physical desires.
These three sub groups are also grouped under the heading "Despair over the earthly. Unlike in the upper level, this weakness is understood and as such, instead of turning to faith and humbling oneself before God, they despair in their own weakness and unworthiness.
In this sense, they despair over the eternal and refuse to be comforted by the light of God. The last and lowest form of despair is the desire "In despair to will to be oneself.
In this form of despair, the individual finds him or herself in despair, understands they are in despair, seeks some way to alleviate it, and yet no help is forthcoming.
As a result, the self becomes hardened against any form of help and "Even if God in heaven and all the angels offered him aid, he would not want it.Kierkegaard's theological work focuses on Christian ethics, judge precipitously. Those with insight, those who know never do this.
Soren Kierkegaard, Works of Love, existential philosophy has its point of origin in Kierkegaard and his Born: 5 May , Copenhagen, Denmark–Norway. Books at Amazon. The heartoftexashop.com Books homepage helps you explore Earth's Biggest Bookstore without ever leaving the comfort of your couch.
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Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (/ ˈ s ɒr ə n ˈ k ɪər k ə ɡ ɑːr d / SORR-ən KEER-kə-gard; Danish: [sɶːɐn ˈkiɐ̯ɡəɡɒːˀ] (); 5 May – 11 November ) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
He wrote critical texts on organized religion, Christendom, morality, ethics. Existential Theology Search this Guide Search. Philosophy Resource Guide: Existential Theology. The study of nature, knowledge, and reality through deep thought.
Welcome; Find Articles; Soren Kierkegaard ( - ): Topic Page. Danish philosopher and religious thinker.
Kierkegaard's outwardly uneventful life in . Søren Kierkegaard's theology has been a major influence in the development of 20th century theology.Søren Kierkegaard (–) was a 19th-century Danish philosopher who has been generally considered the "Father of Existentialism".During his later years (–), most of his writings shifted from philosophical in nature to .
Adorno, on the other hand, in his Habilitationsschrift, later published as Kierkegaard: Construction of the Aesthetic, is critical of Kierkegaard’s politics, though Adorno’s indirect target was Heidegger and existentialism more generally. Adorno argues that Kierkegaard’s philosophy of inwardness ultimately reflects only the bourgeois.