Writing Research Questions and Hypotheses Research Questions and Hypotheses The purpose of this module is to discuss research questions and research hypotheses and to provide definitions, comparisons and examples of both.
Open in a separate window A poorly devised research question may affect the choice of study design, potentially lead to futile situations and, thus, hamper the chance of determining anything of clinical significance, which will then affect the potential for publication.
Without devoting appropriate resources to developing the research question, the quality of the study and subsequent results may be compromised. During the initial stages of any research study, it is therefore imperative to formulate a research question that is both clinically relevant and answerable.
Research hypothesis The primary research question should be driven by the hypothesis rather than the data. This sounds intuitive; however, if we take, for example, a database of information, it is potentially possible to perform multiple statistical comparisons of groups within the database to find a statistically significant association.
Multiple statistical testing of associations from data previously collected could potentially lead to spuriously positive findings of association through chance Hypothesis questions.
The research or clinical hypothesis is developed from the research question and then the main elements of the study — sampling strategy, intervention if applicablecomparison and outcome variables — are summarized in a form that establishes the basis for testing, statistical and ultimately clinical significance.
The investigative team would first state a research hypothesis. This could be expressed as a single outcome e.
The null hypothesis for the preceding research hypothesis then would be that there is no difference in mean functional outcome between the computer-assisted insertion and free-hand placement techniques. After forming the null hypothesis, the researchers would form an alternate hypothesis stating the nature of the difference, if it should appear.
The alternate hypothesis would be that there is a difference in mean functional outcome between these techniques. At the end of the study, the null hypothesis is then tested statistically. If the findings of the study are not statistically significant i.
In other words, hypothesis testing confirms or refutes the statement that the observed findings did not occur by chance alone but rather occurred because there was a true difference in outcomes between these surgical procedures.
The concept of statistical hypothesis testing is complex, and the details are beyond the scope of this article.
Another important concept inherent in hypothesis testing is whether the hypotheses will be 1-sided or 2-sided. A 2-sided hypothesis states that there is a difference between the experimental group and the control group, but it does not specify in advance the expected direction of the difference.
For example, we asked whether there is there an improvement in outcomes with computer-assisted surgery or whether the outcomes worse with computer-assisted surgery. We presented a 2-sided test in the above example because we did not specify the direction of the difference. A 1-sided hypothesis states a specific direction e.
A 2-sided hypothesis should be used unless there is a good justification for using a 1-sided hypothesis. Whereas the investigators may state the hypothesis as being 1-sided there is an improvement with treatmentthe study and investigators must adhere to the concept of clinical equipoise.
According to this principle, a clinical or surgical trial is ethical only if the expert community is uncertain about the relative therapeutic merits of the experimental and control groups being evaluated.
Acting on the principles of appropriate hypothesis development, the study can then confidently proceed to the development of the research objective. Research objective The primary objective should be coupled with the hypothesis of the study.
Study objectives define the specific aims of the study and should be clearly stated in the introduction of the research protocol. Note that the study objective is an active statement about how the study is going to answer the specific research question.
Objectives can and often do state exactly which outcome measures are going to be used within their statements.
They are important because they not only help guide the development of the protocol and design of study but also play a role in sample size calculations and determining the power of the study. For example, the most methodologically sound randomized controlled trial comparing 2 techniques of distal radial fixation would have little or no clinical impact if the primary objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on intraoperative fluoroscopy time.
However, if the objective was to determine the effect of treatment A as compared to treatment B on patient functional outcome at 1 year, this would have a much more significant impact on clinical decision-making.Hypothesis testing in statistics is a way for you to test the results of a survey or experiment to see if you have meaningful results.
You’re basically testing whether your results are valid by figuring out the odds that your results have happened by chance. Sixth Grade (Grade 6) Scientific Method Questions. You can create printable tests and worksheets from these Grade 6 Scientific Method questions!
Select one or more questions using the checkboxes above each question. Form a hypothesis Test the hypothesis with an experiment Draw a conclusion. Hypothesis Test Questions (Chapters 20 – 26): Class Examples 1.
The Mars Candy Co. claims that since the.
The null hypothesis sometimes is called the "no difference" hypothesis. The null hypothesis is good for experimentation because it's simple to disprove. If you disprove a null hypothesis, that is evidence for a relationship between the variables you are examining.
This is a very basic homework question testing the basic concepts of hypothesis testing from a introductory statistics course text. As it is clearly homework I will sketch how to answer the questions.
The Three-Step Process. It can quite difficult to isolate a testable hypothesis after all of the research and study. The best way is to adopt a three-step hypothesis; this will help you to narrow things down, and is the most foolproof guide to how to write a hypothesis.