Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. In the United Statesfor example, the people identified as African Americans do not share a common set of physical characteristics.
In contrast with traditional environmental health approaches that focus primarily on toxic substances in air, water, and soil, this more recent approach conceptualizes the environment more broadly to encompass a range of human-made physical and social features that are affected by public policy Frumkin, These economic, social, urban or rural, transportation, and other policies that affect the environment were not traditionally thought of as relevant to health policy but are now attracting greater attention because decision makers are beginning to recognize their health implications Cole and Fielding, By definition, environmental factors affect large groups that share common living or working spaces.
Thus, they are key candidates as explanatory factors for health differences across geographic areas, such as countries. Indeed, a major motivation for the research on environmental determinants of health has been the repeated observation that many health outcomes are spatially patterned.
These patterns are present across countries and across regions within countries, as well as at smaller scales, such as across urban neighborhoods Center on Human Needs, b ; Kawachi and Subramanian, Strong spatial variation is present for a large range of health outcomes, including many of the outcomes for which there are cross-national health differences, such as noncommunicable diseases, associated risk factors, injuries, and violence.
Understanding the reasons for the spatial patterns of health within countries may shed light on environmental factors that may contribute to differences across countries. Several factors may explain the strong spatial patterns that are observed within countries.
A key contender is the spatial sorting of people based on their socioeconomic position, race, or ethnicity.
However, evidence suggests that regional and neighborhood differences in health persist even after adjusting for these socioeconomic and demographic factors Diez Roux and Mair, ; Mair et al.
This evidence suggests that broad environmental factors may play an important role in health. Moreover, environmental factors linked to space and place may in turn contribute to and reinforce socioeconomic and racial or ethnic health disparities Bleich et al.
Thus, individual and environmental factors may be part of a reinforcing cycle that creates and perpetuates health differences.
These reinforcing processes by which environmental factors and individual- family- and community-level factors reinforce each other over time may also play an important role in generating cross-national differences in health.
This chapter focuses on both the physical and social environment in the United States as potential contributors to its health disadvantage relative to other high-income countries.
This chapter, like others before it, focuses on three questions: Do environmental factors matter to health? Are environmental factors worse in the United States than in other high-income countries? Do environmental factors explain the U.
The environment can affect health through physical exposures, such as air pollution OECD, b. A large body of work has documented the effects of exposure to particulate matter solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity Brook et al.
Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes Brook et al. The effects of particulate matter on mortality appear to be consistent across countries. For example, a recent review of studies from the late s to mids found a consistent inverse relationship between airborne particulate matter and birth weight in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States Parker et al.
Another notable example is the evidence linking lead exposures to cognitive development in children Bellinger, ; Levin et al. The evidence of environmental effects of air pollution and lead has been reflected in legislation in many countries directed at reducing levels of these pollutants in the environment.
Increasing attention has focused on the implications for health behaviors and social interactions that are created by the built environment. The built environment refers to the presence of and proximity to health-relevant resources as well as to aspects of the ways in which neighborhoods are designed and built including land use patterns, transportation systems, and urban planning and design features.
An important example is evidence that links proximity to healthy or unhealthy food stores with dietary behaviors and related chronic disease outcomes Babey et al.
Another large body of work has documented how walking and physical activity levels are affected by access to recreational facilities, land use mix, transportation systems, and urban planning and design Auchinloss et al.
Across countries, studies have also shown that physical activity by children is associated with features of the built environment, including walking-related features, and physical activity resources Bringolf-Isler et al. The importance of residential environments to obesity and related conditions, such as diabetes, was recently highlighted by a randomized housing intervention: Unfortunately, the study was not designed to identify the specific environmental features responsible for the observed effect.
A range of other physical environmental features have been linked to other health outcomes.
For example, the density of alcohol retail outlets has been linked to alcohol-related health complications Campbell et al. Transportation systems and other aspects of physical environments that influence driving behaviors are also related to injury morbidity and mortality Douglas et al.
Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods as a proxy for a range of environmental exposures has been linked to higher rates of injury in both adults and children Cubbin et al. Social Environmental Factors Factors in the social environment that are important to health include those related to safety, violence, and social disorder in general, and more specific factors related to the type, quality, and stability of social connections, including social participation, social cohesion, social capital, and the collective efficacy of the neighborhood or work environment Ahern and Galea, What also seems important is the stability of social connections, such as the composition and stability of households 7 and the existence of stable and supportive local social environments or neighborhoods in which to live and work.
A network of social relationships is an important source of support and appears to be an important influence on health behaviors. Social environments may also operate through effects on drug use, which also has consequences for violence and mental-health-related outcomes.characteristics such as reactivity, mood, shyness, sociability, emotionality, attention/ persistence, and adaptability.
Because temperament is defined as stable and early appearing individual differences in behavioral tendencies, it is presumed to have strong biological roots. Clearly identifiable and enduring patterns of behavior such.
Physical Education: Content and Design physical characteristics and performances of students in physical education classes, and to make decisions motor skills and movement patterns (e.g., biological, psychological, sociological, experiential, environmental) 4.
Perception in motor development. Human physical variation is continuous and available evidence suggests that gene flow among human populations throughout their history has been the rule rather than the exception. Humans are characterized by their bipedalism and their lack of significant body hair.
HEREDITY CONCEPT Heredity is the transmission of genetic characteristics from ancestor to descendant through the genes. As a subject, it is tied closely to genetics, the area of biological study concerned with hereditary traits.
Cross-cultural: discovering general patterns about cultural traits Two broad classification of anthropology Biological (Physical) Seeks the emergence of humans & their later evolution (called human paleontology) and how & why contemporary human populations vary biologically (human variation) Study the fossils of human, prehumans & related.
tection, Diagnosis, and heartoftexashop.come with SMS will have a variation of unusual behavior and physical characteristics.