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European expansion before Antecedents of European expansion Medieval Europe was largely self-contained until the First Crusade —99which opened new political and commercial communications with the Muslim Near East. Although Christian crusading states founded in Palestine and Syria proved ephemeralcommercial relations continued, and the European end of this trade fell largely into the hands of Italian cities.
Competition between Mediterranean nations for control of Asiatic commerce gradually narrowed to a contest between Venice and Genoa, with the former winning when it severely defeated its rival city in ; thereafter, in partnership with Egypt, Venice principally dominated the Oriental trade coming via the Indian Ocean and Red Sea to Alexandria.
Overland routes were not wholly closed, but the conquests of the central Asian warrior Timur Tamerlane —whose empire broke into warring fragments after his death in —and the advantages of a nearly continuous sea voyage from the Middle and Far East to the Mediterranean gave Venice a virtual monopoly of some Oriental products, principally spices.
The word spices then had a loose application and extended to many Oriental luxuries, but the most valuable European imports were pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and cinnamon. The fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in did not seriously affect Venetian control.
Although other Europeans resented this dominance of the trade, even the Portuguese discovery and exploitation of the Cape of Good Hope route could not altogether break it. Early Renaissance Europe was short of cash money, though it had substantial banks in northern Italy and southern Germany.
Florence possessed aggregations of capital, and its Bardi bank in the 14th century and the Medici successor in the 15th financed much of the eastern Mediterranean trade. Later, during the great discoveries, the Augsburg houses of Fugger and Welser furnished capital for voyages and New World enterprises.
When Prince Henry the Navigator undertook sponsorship of Portuguese discovery voyages down the west coast of Africa, a principal motive was to find the mouth of a river to be ascended to these mines.
Technological improvements Europe had made some progress in discovery before the main age of exploration. The discoveries of the Madeira Islands and the Azores in the 14th century by Genoese seamen could not be followed up immediately, however, because they had been made in galleys built for the Mediterranean and ill suited to ocean travel; the numerous rowers that they required and their lack of substantial holds left only limited room for provisions and cargo.
In the early 15th century all-sails vesselsthe caravelslargely superseded galleys for Atlantic travel; these were light ships, having usually two but sometimes three masts, ordinarily equipped with lateen sails but occasionally square-rigged.
When longer voyages began, the nao, or carrackproved better than the caravel; it had three masts and square rigging and was a rounder, heavier ship, more fitted to cope with ocean winds. Navigational instruments were improved. The compassprobably imported in primitive form from the Orient, was gradually developed until, by the 15th century, European pilots were using an iron pin that pivoted in a round box.
They realized that it did not point to the true north, and no one at that time knew of the magnetic polebut they learned approximately how to correct the readings.
The astrolabeused for determining latitude by the altitude of stars, had been known since Roman times, but its employment by seafarers was rare, even as late as ; it became more common during the next 50 years, though most pilots probably did not possess it and often did not need it because most voyages took place in the narrow waters of the Mediterranean or Baltic or along western European coasts.
For longitude, then and many years thereafter, dead reckoning had to be employed, but this could be reasonably accurate when done by experts.
The typical medieval map had been the planisphere, or mappemonde, which arranged the three known continents in circular form on a disk surface and illustrated a concept more theological than geographical. The earliest surviving specimens of the portolanicor harbour-finding, charts date from shortly before and are of Pisan and Genoese origin.
Portolanic maps aided voyagers by showing Mediterranean coastlines with remarkable accuracy, but they gave no attention to hinterlands. As Atlantic sailings increased, the coasts of western Europe and Africa south of the Strait of Gibraltar were shown somewhat correctly, though less so than for the Mediterranean.
Portugal could claim and occupy everything to the east of the line and Spain everything to the west though no one then knew where the demarcation would bisect the other side of the globe.
They faced occasional Oriental enemies but weathered these dangers with their superior ships, gunnery, and seamanship.
Territorially, theirs was scarcely an empire; it was a commercial operation based on possession of fortifications and posts strategically situated for trade.
This policy was carried out principally by two viceroys, Francisco de Almeida in —09 and Afonso de Albuquerque in — Almeida seized several eastern African and Indian points and defeated a Muslim naval coalition off Diu now in Goa, Daman, and Diu union territory, India.Posts about Jesuit missions in New Spain written by Keith Watkins.
Keith Watkins Historian. Religious historian aggressive cyclist however, these missionary priests participated in a surprisingly regulated communal way of life.
Because the perfection of the religious life depended largely on such exact observance of the rule in. It is located on the Iberian Peninsula in southern Europe. It is bordered by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean to the West; France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay to the North; and the Mediterranean Sea to the East and South.
Wikipedia - Spain; Operation World - Spain. HeartCry Missionaries Heber Torres Pastor / Teacher - Marin, Spain. 2 hours ago · Jesuit priest Fr Victor Luke Odhiambo was attacked and killed by unknown people on the night of 15 November in Cueibet South Sudan.
The late priest was known for his commitment to education and social transformation for the people of South Sudan. By CE, the Jewish citizens in Spain either had the choice under King Sisebut ( CE) either to convert or be expelled from Spain.
The historical chronicles record that 90, Jews converted while many fled north to Gaul and south to Northern Africa. Spain’s queen Mariana sponsored the missionaries sent to the islands that were named the Marianas after her and became part of the Philippines in On the island of Guam, Jesuit missionary Diego Luis de San Vitores baptized Chief Kapuha (Quipuha), who granted land for a Catholic church.
(A Little-Known Story: The Jesuit Missions in South America and How Their Success Led to the Dissolution of the Order of Saint Ignatius) [Review of Black Robes in Paraguay: The Success of the Guarani Missions Hastened the Abolition of the Jesuits by William F.
heartoftexashop.com House Publishers].