The Civil War One side can start a war, but it takes two to end one. The Bolsheviks found that this principle applied to themselves after October, when they expected to disengage quickly from World War I.
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Both policies were a desperate attempt to preserve the revolution and this is greatly reflects the reasons why some groups were advantaged and why others were disadvantaged. War communism was implemented as a result of the civil war.
Historians such as Maurice Dobb, E. Carr, and Stephen Cohen — have interpreted war communism as a short-term expedient imposed on the Bolsheviks by the emergency demands of civil war and foreign intervention. According to this version, the system was never intended to last into normal peacetime conditions and had no special ideological significance.
Large scale businesses were nationalised without compensation; this was extended to all business with more than ten people by All private trade was abolished, and the government controlled food with ration cards and workers were paid through food rations.
Workers were told when and where to work, often working up to ten hours a day, and strikes became illegal. The impact of War Communism was great on both the peasantry and the proletariat. Most peasants were prepared to burn their crops and kill their livestock rather than hand them over to the Cheka, however the dire consequences that resulted in doing this meant that many peasants did reluctantly hand them over.
As the Cheka also took the seed grain an acute shortage of food and a great famine occurred during the period Peasants resented these changes and there were many great uprisings during this period of time.
This included the peasant revolution led by Antanov and the Tambok region in The famine of caused peasants to flee urban centres in search of food.
The impact on the peasants were that their livelihood was destroyed they had no way of feeding their families and hence dissatisfaction with the government grew. A wave of strikes in Pertograd demanded the abolishment of grain requisitioning, freedom for peasant to run their own farm, a Soviet based government rather than a Bolshevik based government and amnesty for political prisoners.
War communism also caused dissatisfaction within the proletariat. They were unhappy about the extremely long working hours and the punishment they received simply for being late. Industrial production declined, as raw materials were not reaching the factories.
Food shortages occurred and many starving workers went to the countryside to try and find food. Factories had to close down as raw materials and fuel was not reaching them. The disfavour towards the government by the proletariat was shown as membership of the proletariat to the Bolshevik party greatly declined during this period of time.
The great number of illegal strikes and demonstrations caused Lenin to rethink his policy of war communism in order to preserve the revolution. The NEP partly reintroduced capitalism as it was a return to small industries. The NEP abolished requisitioning, concessions were given to the Kuklas, who were allowed to sell their surplus after paying a tax, who could rent land for limited periods of time, hire labour for cultivation and choose what they grew.
It was a limited return to the cash economy with cash given rather than the ticketing system in place and private ownership of factories were allowed. Small business owners Nepman could purchase raw materials and sell their products but the state still had control of large scale heavy industries within its central planning regime.
This led to the great famine of However in the period the harvests were so good, largely due to corn seedlings from the USA, that Russia was able to export a small amount of grain. With the new conditions peasants were able to diversify and produce vegetables and fruits.
As a result of this the peasants; standard of living began to improve.Contents A Note on Names Glossary and Abbreviations Introduction 1 part one: Origins and Development 1. The Idea of Communism 9 2. Communism and Socialism –.
During the Civil War the government decided to introduce what became known as War Communism. All companies were now nationalized and the government now decided what should be produced.
The NEP also allowed some freedom of internal trade, permitted some private commerce and reestablished state banks. Factories employing . Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from around to by Joseph Stalin (–).
Stalinist policies and ideas as developed in the Soviet Union included rapid industrialization, the theory of socialism in one country, a totalitarian state, collectivization of agriculture, a cult of personality and subordination of the interests of foreign communist.
War communism or military communism (Russian: Военный коммунизм, Voyennyy kommunizm) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War from to The two Soviet Unions Gary Berkovich describes his experience in the second stage of the Soviet Union, the country devastated by the World War II and perverted by the paranoid dictator Stalin.
Communism refers to a theory for revolutionary change and political and socioeconomic organization based on common control of the means of production as opposed to private ownership. While communism or Marxism-Leninism, as it is known, champions economic justice, it views social revolution and the violent overthrow of the existing social order as essential components in the process.