At any given time, half of the worlds hospital beds are occupied by patients suffering from diseases associated with lack of access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. It is estimated that improved sanitation facilities could reduce diarrhea-related deaths in young children by more than one-third. If hygiene promotion is added, such as teaching proper hand washing, deaths could be reduced by two thirds. It would also help accelerate economic and social development in countries where sanitation is a major cause of lost work and school days because of illness.
Sixty million children are born each year in LEDCs who do not have access to safe water. In LEDCs using appropriate technology [appropriate technology: Simple equipment and technology that the local people are able to use easily and without much cost.
Women and children collecting drinking water from a manmade well in Senegal. Wells, dug by hand, are a common way of accessing water - but the supply can be unreliable and sometimes the well itself can be a source of disease.
Gravity-fed schemes are used where there is a spring on a hillside. The water can be piped from the spring down to the villages. Boreholes can require more equipment to dig, but can be dug quickly and usually safely.
They require a hand or diesel pump to bring the water to the surface.
In addition to locating new sources of water, some strategies help to reduce the need for water. The water has got to come from somewhere, and the source of supply may be scarce.
It is LEDCs which have the lowest access to safe water as the map below shows: Many countries in Africa and the Far East have a below average population size that have access to safe water.
Managing safe water Without safe water people cannot lead healthy and productive lives. Areas which are in poverty are likely to remain in that way. One example where non-governmental charities have helped break this cycle is in Nigeria.
In Nigeria only 38 per cent of people have access to sanitation. A community led total sanitation project CLTS was started by one non-governmental charity. In one year, the project helped 2. Areas with poor infrastructure, high rates of illness and poverty were identified, and the charity worked with the local population in these areas.
The teams worked with the people and educated them as to how poor hygiene and sanitation can make people ill. This included how it can also make others in the community ill.
Toilets were built using local, affordable materials. Key people in the community led the work.Management of water usage in LEDCs. There are problems in supplying water in LEDCs.
These are: lack of availability of clean water; diseases spread via the water supply. The Problems of Water Supply in LICs Water-borne diseases Approx million suffer and 2 million die from water-related diarrhoeal illnesses each year Most are children or the elderly Water Pollution Both surface and groundwater (aquifers) can become polluted, although aquifer pollution is harder to see.
Water Demand and Management Issues. Water is a scarce and limited resource. Water scarcity is a growing problem in many places of the world and is likely to only get worse as a result of climate change. This region has a water scarcity problem.
Low Income Countries (LICs) struggle to manage water supply adequately and lack the. Consider the problems associated with water supply in HICs. Imbalance of rainfall and population between north and south in the UK.
Seasonal imbalance in rainfall on the Spanish Costas. Victorian water pipes in London. Consider the problems associated with water supply in LICs.
Water Supply Problems in Lics * Many tribes Amazon region suffer contaminated water mining operations & oil exploitation led increases cancer, abortion, dermatitis, fungal infection, headaches & nausea. lack of availability of clean water; diseases spread via the water supply; water pollution; Managing water resources.
One in eight people of the world population do not have access to safe water.